Organisation : NC
Reduction of pathogens
Construction cost without land
Short description of the emergency context
The FSM site is situated in a densely populated refugee camp (Cox’s Bazar, Kutupalong-Balukhali extension area, camp 18) with hilly terrain and poor path conditions. The site can be reached on foot and is inaccessible for any type of motorised transport (tricycle, small truck, pick-up, vacuum truck) and non-motorized transport (bike, cart). Long rainfall periods during the monsoon and cyclone season worsened path conditions in the camp and desludging and sludge treatment had to be stopped.
The FSM site is particularly suitable for the relief phase and has a designed life expectancy of 6 – 12 months.
Reduction of pathogens
Life expectancy and reliability
Short term (months)
Skill level required for design
Low (easy design)
Source of sludge
From public toilet, From septic tank
Mountains and hills, Valleys
Type of outputs
Using locally available material
Construction costs, Capex per current flow (excluding costs of land)
The area required for the FSM site is roughly 500 m2 (0.06m2/person). This includes all facility buildings, office and warehouse and ample free space but excludes the area needed for safe sludge disposal. An area of 90 m2 is directly occupied by drying beds.
On average 4m3 sludge is treated per day, which is in accordance with a target population of 10,000 people served with FSM activities and a sludge accumulation rate of 0.4 L/person/day.
Although desludging efforts seem to answer to the needs in 23 blocks (9,383 people), the actual number of people reached can be lower as 1) the desludging is done by the organisations that have constructed the latrines, 2) the desludging process is reactive rather than pro-active.
FSM actors state a two-week period between desludging, which calculates to a sludge accumulation rate of 2.9 L/cap/day (assuming full latrines, 0.8 m3, after two weeks).
Costs for construction of the FSM site are estimated at 0.73 USD/person. Construction costs include site preparation and construction of all facility buildings, with the exception of the office and warehouse building.
Daily operation and maintenance costs of the FSM site are estimated at 0.27 USD/person/month. One third of the operational and maintenance costs is requisition of hydrated lime. Another third consists of monetary incentives for community volunteers. Personal Protective Equipment, although of high importance, is only a small fraction of the running costs.
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