Useful links

Sanitation Systems Perspective

The Sanitation Systems Perspective is an interactive version of EAWAG’s Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, a compilation of appropriate sanitation technologies, plus a tool for combining technologies in a full system.

Click here to visit the website.

SuSanA

SuSanA (Sustainable Sanitation Alliance) is an informal network of people and organisations who share a common vision on sustainable sanitation and who want to contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, in particular SDG6.

Created in 2007, SuSanA provides a platform that connects members to a community of people with diverse expertise and opinions. SuSanA also serves as sounding board for innovative ideas. Finally, SuSanA contributes to policy dialogue through joint publications, meetings and initiatives.

The website contains numerous publications and resources, a project database and a discussion forum.

Click here to visit SuSanA.

Global WaSH Cluster

The Global WaSH Cluster, created in 2006, is an open and formal platform for humanitarian WaSH actors to work together in partnership. It is today made up of 76 partners and aims at improving the coordination and the humanitarian response in the WaSH sector. It is led by UNICEF. At country level, the objective of the cluster approach is to strengthen response through predictability, accountability and partnership by ensuring better prioritisation and by defining roles and responsibilities of humanitarian organisations.

The GWC is in charge of establishing Technical Working Groups when major crises occur in order to coordinate the response on-site.

Click here to visit the GWC website.

Mémento de l'assainissement

The Mémento de l’assainissement is a methodological and practical guide developed by a French NGO GRET. It covers the entire sanitation sector, from wastewater and sewage sludge collection to their treatment, and provides recommendations that can be applied to both urban and semi-urban contexts.

It is only available in French for now.

Click here to download the publication.

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Indicators notice

Unit/value

Excreta containment
Solid/liquid separation
Urine/faeces separation
Sludge drying
Stabilisation of sludge
Sludge volume reduction
Reduction of odour/flies
Reduction of pathogens
BOD reduction
TSS and TDS reduction
Nutrient removal
Nitrification
Nutrient recovery
Biogas recovery
Water recovery
Biomass production
Other

How to measure or calculate it ?

If possible, revise design document and ask to the design team or consultants: the objective should have been considered to design and dimension the faecal sludge treatment site. Usually, the objective is related to the quality of input sludge and the environmental conditions of disposal sites or the desired reusing methodology

This is very important to design the faecal sludge treatment site and to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment

References, tips, examples

Why it is important to measure it
This is very important to design the faecal sludge treatment site and to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment

Unit/value
Short term (months)
Long term (years)

How to measure or calculate it ?

Identify immediate and long term needs. Analyse population growing and movements trends (see design beneficiary indicator), donors and implementing actors commitments for the future.

References, tips, examples

The size of the population today might be 1,000 persons (often referred to as ‘capita’), but in 1 year this may double and in 5 years this might increase ten-fold; moreover it is important to know how long the facility will need to last to determine the building materials to use

Why it is important to measure it ?
It is important to know the design period as this will help to calculate the designed beneficiary population (see indicator) by the faecal sludge treatment site. Moreover, it is important to know how long the facility will need to last to determine the building materials to use

Unit / value

Low skilled: general WASH officer
Skilled: FSM specialist

How to measure or calculate it ?

The indicator is determined by assessing the design process and understanding if specialists were involved or not

References, tips and/or examples

Example of different design skills in the same context: Design of large scale faecal sludge treatment site of Oxfam in Cox Bazar was implemented in collaboration with Borda (sanitation experts). The small lime stabilization faecal treatment site of Oxfam was implemented by the ‘regular’ WASH officers.

However it’s always preferable to check designs with FSM specialists as in practice the law of Murphy rules: anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.
So for example also during the design of a simple facility as septic tank the following mistakes are common:
– inlet and outlet are mixed up;
– plans and cross-sections are mixed up;
– capacity of the facility is far too large;
– absence of ventilation pipes;
– absence of infiltration facilities;
– leaking tanks;
Etc., etc. etc.

Why it is important to measure it ?

Faecal sludge is a potential dangerous material: a simple mistake impacts the lives of many people
This indicator is important for actors interested in implementing faecal sludge treatment for planning reasons.

Unit / value
yes
no

How to measure or calculate it ?
Check, at the end of rainy season, the groundwater table at the faecal sludge site by digging a pit and/or checking dug wells nearby (in the early morning before water is taken and water level drops).
If it’s not possible to do it at the end of rainy season, ask information to local population about water level in the wells during the year.

References, tips, examples

In areas with high water tables, it might be a challenge to dig pits/ tanks as pumps for keeping the pit dry might be absent. Even if pumps are available, care must be taken to avoid floating of empty tanks. Floating can be avoided by adding enough weight (stones, concrete) to the tank to prevent floating. Hence, above ground / raised facilities are advised such as raised Oxfam tanks.

Why it is important to measure it ?

Faecal sludge is potentially dangerous material and when in contacts with water, contaminants will spread easily and quickly. Moreover, construction in areas with high ground water table requires extra measures and more complex structures (expensive)

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